||This paper looks at the Mozart Effect and examines the studies that have challenged the original premise of Rauscher (1993). Research indicates that listening to music, and background music, can impact on academic performance; however this effect is due to the fact that music can induce arousal and mood changes which, in turn, stimulate learning, rather than to any specific characteristics of Mozart's music. The impact that music can have in learning situations is examined based on evidence from music psychology. Suggestions are made as to how and what kind of music might be used in different classroom situations to create particular and more effective learning environments. Proposals and recommendations are made for future research in this area.